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This article critically evaluates the theoretical and empirical literature on contemporary prostitution.


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These women were known to have engaged in prostitution between approximately and Most women ultimately appeared in multiple data sources during their prostitution careers 9. John J. Potterat, Devon D. Brewer, Stephen Q. Muth, Richard B. Rothenberg, Donald E. Woodhouse, John B. Muth, Heather K. In this study, the authors estimated overall and cause-specific mortality among prostitute women.

Though incomplete, the data suggest that the nexus of injecting drug use, drug overdose, and acquisition of HIV was the most important nonviolent contributor to heightened mortality. Deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome occurred exclusively among prostitutes who admitted to injecting drug use or were inferred to have a history of it.

The latter consisted of a shifting set of women. Among the women who died, injecting drug use status was known for 59; 45 admitted to injecting drug use. All of these nine women were active prostitutes at the time of death, and eight were killed while soliciting.

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In mid, the health department instituted a mechanism for examining arrested prostitutes for sexually transmitted infections, termed the Health Hold Order 8. This relationship was unilateral: Police provided health officers access to prostitution records but not vice versa. The overall crude mortality rate and standardized mortality ratio for the pd-active prostitutes—the women whose period of observation included only that time during which they were most likely to have been engaged in prostitution—were perperson-years and 5.

Between andhealth department and police prostitution records were periodically compared. The standardized mortality ratio for homicide in the cumulative cohort was 7.

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At about the same time, the police created a vice squad to monitor prostitution. Colorado statutes urged coordination between public health officials and police officers in suppressing sexually transmitted infections and prostitution 5. We computed standardized mortality ratios by dividing the observed of deaths by the expected of deaths.

The Colorado Springs Police Department supplied a list of homicides that occurred in Colorado Springs between and We also requested information about death circumstances from other US jurisdictions for other murdered women in our cohort. Seven hundred seventy-four 98 percent of the women who had visited any of our health department clinics since mid had been tested for HIV, and 29 3.

Women who had dates of first prostitution were more likely to be African-American 33 percent than women lacking such escort 17 percent. Received for publication September 10, ; accepted for publication November 24, Female prostitution is embedded in a context of felonious activity, illicit drugs, and violence 1 — 4 and is associated with premature mortality.

In our clinics, we recorded standard information on each woman as part of routine clinical and epidemiologic evaluation. Few of the women died of natural causes, as would be expected for persons whose average age at death was 34 years.

Two cohort studies have directly assessed mortality in prostitutes during short observation periods 56. Thus, deaths from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome occurred only among injecting drug users. Most NDI matches were eliminated using logic e. Predictably 7none of the death certificates recorded any history or evidence of Henderson.

Enhanced monitoring of prostitution in Colorado Springs began in the s in response to a rapidly growing gonorrhea epidemic associated with prostitution 58. Twenty-seven of fraser 29 HIV-positive women admitted to injecting drug use.

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US Census figures 10 show that inColorado Springs had a population of , of whom 94 percent were White including an unknown proportion of Hispanics5 percent were African-American, and 1 percent were of other races. Ninety-one percent were known to have engaged in prostitution locally, 4 percent reported histories of prostitution elsewhere only, and for 5 percent, locale was not recorded.

New directions in research on prostitution

Possible matches include state of death and certificate. Health department records and death certificates showed perfect concordance on SSN for 49 86 percent of the 57 confirmed-dead women who had an SSN in both sources. From through1, women were identified as prostitutes in Colorado Springs. The crude mortality rate was perperson-years, and the standardized mortality ratio was 1.

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By extrapolation, this rate implies that between andapproximately prostitute women were murdered annually in the United States, ing for 2. Nearly all of the missing data on year of first local prostitution were attributable to women who did not have dated records in police files during the early part of fraser observation period, women identified only through visits to the HIV testing clinic or the drug treatment clinic where dates of first local prostitution were not systematically collectedwomen who engaged in prostitution elsewhere, and women for whom the locale of prostitution could not be determined.

The study cohort included women in Colorado Springs identified by police or health department surveillance as prostitutes, that is, as women who exchanged sex for money or drugs. Rather, based on proportional mortality, the escort causes of death were homicide 19 percentdrug ingestion 18 percentaccidents Henderson percentand alcohol-related causes 9 percent table 3.

Violence and drug use were the predominant causes of death, both during periods of prostitution and during the whole observation period. In comparison with the general population, the standardized mortality ratio SMRadjusted for age and race, was 1. The remaining women The overwhelming majority of the women worked as street prostitutes; only worked in massage parlors, and most of these women also worked on the streets 9.

Thus, active prostitutes were almost 18 times more likely to be murdered than women of similar age and race during the study interval.

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Their activities included arrest and field surveillance including the recording of personal identifiers of persons engaged in prostitution. Our list was searched at the NDI in late and compared with decedent records for — Our NDI search was approved by the Colorado Health Sciences Henderson Institutional Review Board; in addition, death certificate requests were subject, in some states, to local institutional review.

Rates were fraser for two escorts of women: the cumulative cohort which grew steadily from to and a subcohort classified as active prostitutes. Mortality rates were based on the 1, women for whom year of first observation of local prostitution was available.

Source documentation consists of death certificate information provided by state and territorial registries. The NDI search algorithm generates many potential matches, especially if the submitted information is incomplete, as well as a score 0— For all searches, we classified matches as definite concordance of four of the following: SSN within one digitname, birth date, race, and sex ; probable among data items other than SSN, no more than two items slightly discordant e. Figures 12and 3 show for each year the of women observed for the first time, the in the cumulative cohort, and the in the active cohort, respectively.

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Observed dates of first prostitution were available for 1, women. For nine women 8 percentthe underlying cause of death was HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; all had either admitted to a history of injecting drug use or were inferred from having track marks, being named an injecting drug user by others, or associating only with other injecting drug users to have a history of injecting drug use. Both the prevalence and of sexual partners of prostitute women in Colorado Springs appear to be representative of prostitutes in the United States 9 It is maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Using the more rigorous matching criteria, we made requests for death certificates for women from 38 state registries.

Materials and methods

We considered definite and probable deaths to be confirmed. For three decades, continuous, community-wide surveillance of prostitutes in Colorado Springs, Colorado, has generated information on a large cohort of prostitute women 89. Our calculations of person-years of observation took into the fact that actual dates of first observation and death when dates precise to the day and month were available were uniformly distributed across a given year resulting in 0. NDI algorithms identify possible matches; the quality of matches depends on the completeness of submitted data.

They recorded information on prostitute women identified by police and health department surveillance in Colorado Springs, Colorado, from to The authors assessed cause-specific mortality in this open cohort of 1, women using the Social Security Death Index and the National Death Index, augmented by individual investigations.

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The workplace homicide rate for prostitutes in the moving cohort eight murdered on the job was perperson-years. The confirmed deaths were distributed in 26 states.

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Thus, we inferred that the majority of living women in the cohort continued to work as prostitutes while in the moving cohort. Starting in mid, women visiting the sexually transmitted infection clinic or the HIV testing clinic who provided histories of prostitution were queried about injecting drug use and offered HIV testing; such information was unavailable for prostitutes ascertained solely by means of other sources. Of 21 murders, nine occurred within 3 years of the first observed prostitution. In addition, we estimated the average annual of murdered prostitutes in the United States between and by multiplying the homicide rate we observed by the estimated of prostitute women in the United States 23 perpopulation, derived from our local capture-recapture study 9.

Although murder ed for 19 percent of all confirmed deaths, it ed for half of the 18 deaths in the active subcohort. The crude mortality rate for homicide in the cumulative cohort was On the basis of this latter estimate, these women faced, on average, a 1 percent 0. Fifteen percent had a span of prostitution of 2 years, and 35 percent had a span of less than 2 years.

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For the year study interval, women 6 percent were classified as confirmed dead and 26 1. The nine deaths occurring among active prostitutes that were not deemed to be homicides included five drug overdoses, two suicides, and two deaths due to unknown causes. These data and the availability of national mortality databases permitted assessment of cause-specific mortality among these women.

Materials and methods

Then we divided this product by the mean of females, overall and between ages 15 and 44 years, murdered annually during this period 17 — 19 to estimate the percentage of female murder victims in the United States who were prostitutes. No prior research has measured prostitute mortality during a long period or has verified it with vital statistics records. Of these 1, women, died during the study period. The NDI program compensates for spelling subtleties by using phonetic codes.